Example Solutions for

Step-by-Step Chemistry


Chemical Conversions

Follow the steps for unit conversion:

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Atoms

Assemble a ground-state orbital diagram:

Count the number of valence electrons:

Find the wavelength of a photon from a CO2(g) laser:

Build the nuclide symbol:

Find the neutron number:

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Molecules

Calculate molecular mass:

Compute the elemental composition of molecules:

Count the total number of particles:

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Chemical Reactions

Learn how to balance a chemical reaction:

Find the required amount of reactants:

Determine the theoretical yield:

Compute the percent yield:

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Equilibrium

Learn to build an equilibrium constant:

Assemble a reaction quotient:

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Kinetics

Construct the reaction rate expression:

Build the rate-of-conversion expression:

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Structure & Bonding

Get a step-by-step procedure to draw the Lewis structures of molecules:

Compute oxidation states of chemicals:

Determine orbital hybridization one step at a time:

Use Hückel's rule to determine aromaticity:

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Gases

Calculate molar properties for gases:

Determine the amount of a gas:

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Acids & Bases

Compute the pKa:

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Chemical Solutions

Prepare chemical solutions:

Prepare a dilute solution:

Compute the density:

Find the anti-knock index for gasoline:

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Concentrations

Compute the molarity of a solution:

Find the molality of a solution:

Determine the mass fraction for a mixture:

Evaluate the amount fraction for a solution:

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Colligative Properties

Compute the boiling point elevation for a solution:

Find the freezing point depression for a solution:

Determine the van 't Hoff factor for a solution:

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Thermodynamics

Compute the change in internal energy:

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