The Bodleian Library in Oxford is founded with 2,000 books.
Robert Cawdrey publishes a dictionary with definitions for 2,543 terms.
John Napier publishes the first tables of logarithms.
Wilhelm Schickard creates a gear-based, wooden, six-digit, mechanical adding machine.
Johannes Kepler's Rudolphine Tables lists the positions of 1,406 stars and procedures for locating the planets.
René Descartes introduces coordinate systems to allow geometry to be studied using algebra.
Maria Cunitz, a German astronomer, publishes Urania Propitia, which contains simplifications of Kepler's Rudolphine Tables.
William Petty, traveling with Cromwell's army, systematically surveys the profitability of land in Ireland.
A record is started that continues today.
Graunt and others start to systematically summarize demographic and economic data using statistical ideas based on mathematics.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society begins publication.
John Wilkins suggests a "philosophical language" in which concepts are encoded by pronouncable phonemes.
Leibniz promotes the idea of answering all human questions by converting them to a universal symbolic language, then applying logic using a machine. He also tries to organize the systematic collection of knowledge to use in such a system.
Edmond Halley creates a map showing prevailing winds at different locations.
Newton introduces the idea that mathematical rules can be used to systematically compute the behavior of systems in nature.
Joseph de la Vega's book Confusion of Confusions describes fluctuations in Dutch stock market prices.
Benjamin Franklin publishes the first edition of his popular yearly (1732–1758) almanac.
Carl Linnaeus systematizes the classification of living organisms, introducing ideas like binomial naming.
The British Museum is founded as a "universal museum" to collect every kind of object, natural and artificial.
Munehisa Homma uses an early candlestick chart for prices in the Japanese rice market.
The US (1785) and UK (1791) governments begin creating detailed systematic maps of their countries.
William Playfair's Commercial and Political Atlas graphically illustrates socioeconomic dates and invents the pie chart.
The first US Census is taken, as specified by the US Constitution.
Robert Bailey Thomas begins publication of the still-extant Farmer's Almanac.
France becomes the first nation to officially adopt the metric system of measurement.