Pliny creates an encyclopedia that claims to summarize all knowledge with references to its sources.
Pedanius Dioscorides produces De Materia Medica as a pharmacopeia covering herbal and other medicines.
Philo of Byblos compiles a dictionary of synonyms and makes the earliest known thesaurus.
Ptolemy's Almagest introduces epicycles to describe the detailed motion of planets.
Galen organizes anatomy and physiology, defining many terms and concepts used today.
Bound, book-like codices replace scrolls.
Cassiodorus founds a monastery devoted to copying, preserving, and translating classic texts, initiating the tradition of literary monasticism.
Decimal place-value notation from India appears in Persian mathematician al-Khwarizmi's book on mathematical algorithms.
The Song Dynasty introduces the use of paper money in China.
Guido d'Arezzo invents musical stave notation.
William the Conqueror orders a detailed accounting of the land and livestock in England.
Hildegard of Bingen's creation of Lingua Ignota may be considered one of the earliest constructed languages, which used an alphabet of 23 letters.
Hugh of St Cher and a team of 500 other monks create a concordance of The Bible.
Ramon Llull promotes a scheme for systematically creating knowledge from formal combinations of ideas.
French philosopher Nicole Oresme introduces the notion of drawing graphs of values.
The Yongle Encyclopedia, assembled by 2,000 scholars, fills over 11,000 volumes with the collected knowledge of Chinese civilization.
The papal archives become the Vatican Library, which is still operating today.
Moveable type makes it economical to print many kinds of documents.
Parishes in England keep weekly records of all christenings, marriages, and burials.
Pope Gregory XIII establishes the modern calendar, changing the leap year rule for years divisible by 100.
Franciscus Vieta writes mathematical formulas with letters as variables, using vowels for unknowns and consonants for parameters.