#
Wolfram|Alpha: The Second Year (May 18, 2010–May 18, 2011)

A survey of some new features, data, and capabilities

View Stephen Wolfram's Q&A webcast »
About Wolfram|Alpha »

## US Economy

**US energy prices:**recent and historical data on electricity, propane, natural gas, and heating oil prices for US states—Blog post »

**Expanded economic data for US states, metro areas, and counties:**including labor force, unemployment, housing, health insurance, and gross state product—Blog post »

**US state tax revenue:**nearly two decades of detailed historical data on tax collections in US states

**US retail sales data:**20 years of monthly historical data about retail sales in nearly 30 different store categories, including restaurants, grocery stores, clothing stores, gas stations, furniture stores, and more—Blog post »

**Occupational employment and salary data for US metro areas:**comprehensive data on salaries and employment numbers for hundreds of detailed occupational categories—Blog post »

**Expanded US income tax data:**marginal tax rates for a given AGI and filing status in any year from 1913 to present and maximum and minimum individual and corporate income tax rates by US state—Blog post »

**US minimum wages**historical data on the minimum wage in all US states from 1969 to present, with the ability to query for inflation-adjusted wages—Blog post »

## International Data

**Labor and employment data:**historical data on labor force and unemployment by sex and education level, employment by industry, employment-to-population ratios, and child labor for most countries—Blog post »

**Economic and financial data:**added time series data for price indices of most countries

**Trade and business environment data:**statistics and ratings on aspects of doing business in most countries

**Mineral production data:**historical data on production of more than 20 key minerals

**International transportation data:**automobile production by country, number of vehicles by type, traffic data, and road lengths for most countries—Blog post »

**Age distribution data:**added data from 1950-2050 on country populations, broken down by sex and 5-year age bins—Blog post »

**Gender populations:**added population fractions

**Enhanced relocation calculations:**data on cost of living and equivalent-salary conversions between most countries

**International health indicators:**added data on dozens of key health indicators for all countries, including numbers of medical personnel and statistics on immunization, contraception, drinking water quality, and tobacco use

**International energy resources:**data on energy production and consumption in all countries, with details on petroleum, coal, natural gas, renewable energy, and nuclear power—Blog post »

**Nuclear reactors:**added data on all operational and shut-down commercial power reactors in the world, with detailed historical power and performance data—Blog post »

**Nuclear explosions:**known nuclear explosions detonated worldwide, including when/where/who detonated them and basic explosion details such as height of burst, type of detonation, and yield

## US Social Statistics

**Expanded US housing data:**added Case-Shiller index, number of houses, and aggregate home value by US metropolitan area, plus the ability to ask about where home prices are rising or falling in a particular region—Blog post »

**US school districts:**data on more than 18,000 public school districts in the US, including teacher and student numbers and detailed stats on district revenues and expenditures—Blog post »

**SAT/ACT scores:**added data by US state

**Expanded population data for US metropolitan areas:**components of population change, including births, deaths, and domestic and international migration

**Enhanced crime data functionality:**added the ability to compare crimes and crime rates between different types of regions (e.g. city to national)

**Expanded data by ZIP code:**demographics by age, race, and sex

## Culture and Media

**Words and linguistics:**new properties of words, such as notable uses, phone digits, crossword clues, Scrabble scores, rhyming words, and close words

**Expanded movie information:**historical box office figures, production budgets, and ratings—Blog post »

**Wikipedia size:**added historical data on Wikipedia growth in various languages

**US congresspeople:**data on current US senators and representatives by state and congressional district

**Broadcast stations:**AM, FM, and TV stations in the US, with data on location, ownership, and power

**Area code upgrades:**added dates in service and service type

**Hindu festivals:**added major religious holidays

**Fictional characters:**data on popular fictional characters from books, film, and television, including basic personal information and notable works for most characters

**Video games:**basic information on hundreds of notable video games, including ratings, publishers, and release dates—Blog post »

**Mythology:**information on hundreds of mythological figures in the Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Hindu pantheons

**Recurring events:**notable worldwide recurring events, with historical data on attendance, location, and notable participants or winners

## Geography

**Famous streets:**systematic data about notable streets in the world, including lengths, nearby attractions, and a visualization of cross-street density

**Oceans:**enhanced and expanded data about all major seas and oceans, including boundary and elevation maps, depths and dimensions, and notable islands, ports, and undersea features

**US county maps:**boundary maps added for all US counties

**Relief plots:**added to mountains, volcanoes, and islands

## Astronomy

**Lagrange points:**new functionality which computes and returns the set of Lagrange points between any pair of astronomical bodies

**Space weather:**important extraterrestrial features of the solar system like sun spots, solar x-ray flux, and more; time series data for sunspots, solar x-ray flux, interplanetary magnetic field, and Kp-index—Blog post »

**Sun path, sky maps, and local sidereal time:**graphical representation of the daily path of the Sun, various location- and time- related facts about the Sun during rise/set, UV index forecast information, observatories, and local sidereal time—Blog post »

**Variable stars:**more stars and new variable properties for stars, including type and range of variation

**New astronomical formulas:**determine the orbital velocity for an object around a center of known mass and with a known circular orbital radius; compute basic properties of telescopes, such as light gathering power and magnifying power

**Cosmology calculations:**the state of the universe for a given comoving distance

**Astronomical radio sources:**information about Sagittarius A* and over 300 other radio sources

## Chemistry

**New properties for existing chemicals:**speed of sound, threshold limit value, UV cutoff wavelength, ionic radii, biological decay properties, pH sensitivities, and more for elements, chemicals, and isotopes

**Improved solution properties:**Raoult's law; Morse equation; salinity data for saltwater solutions such as fresh water, brine, brackish water, and saline water; density, freezing point, conductivity, sound speed, specific heat, and adiabatic lapse rate

**Crystallography:**information regarding crystal systems/families, such as required symmetries, associated Bravais lattices, crystal classes, and space/point groups

**Enhancements to organic chemistry:**functional groups, hybridization, topological indices, and chemical protecting groups

## Earth Sciences

**Expanded earthquakes data:**county, city, and regional level details; historical data going back to the 16th century

**Geochronology:**statistical analysis results for environmental-related properties such as oxygen and CO2 content, as well as temperature anomaly, sea levels, and biodiversity—Blog post »

**Ice ages and glaciations:**data on 6 major ice ages, including temperature and CO2 trends for the current ice age, as well as regional names and type of glaciation and continental configuration for ancient ice ages

**Global climate studies:**dozens of global and regional temperature, greenhouse gases studies, linear trends, and extremal values—Blog post »

**UV forecast:**forecasts of the expected UV doses shown in graphical and tabular form—Blog post »

**Geogravity:**updated and extended ocean models

## Engineering

**Beam formulas:**calculator computing maximum deflection and stress in a beam based on parameters including geometric, physical, and support conditions

**Machinist tools:**calculators for drill sizes for tapping clearance holes; formula that computes various dimensions of a machine screw thread based on various custom inputs and standards

## Health and Medicine

**Disease data:**detailed diagnosis information based on disease prevalence among health care-seeking patients within the US—Blog post (June 29, 2010) »—Blog post (July 15, 2010) »

**Medical symptoms:**information about common diagnoses and patient characteristics from symptoms reported by patients during health care provider visits

**Medical formulas:**peak expiratory flow, glomerular filtration rate, glaucoma risk, whole blood viscosity, oxygen delivery, creatinine clearance—Blog post »

**Physical activity formulas:**estimates of human metabolic properties as a result of completing a default distance, time period, or repetitions for a selection of exercises that include: swimming, running, biking, rowing, and stepping—Blog post (July 13, 2010) »—Blog post (July 23, 2010) »

**Weight loss formula:**suggested caloric regimen and progress indicators based on weight loss goals

**Sunburn:**skin-type dependent time to sunburn calculations provided for any location and current conditions; the time-dependence of the UV dose over the day and potentially applied sunscreen are properly taken into account

**Diving formulas:**new formulas on two of the most commonly used recreational dive planners (PADI and NAUI) for recreational divers

## Life Sciences

**Species characteristics:**unique and characteristic data on numerous plants, animals, insects, and more Blog post »

**Animal hearing ranges:**comparisons of various sound frequency levels to typical hearing ranges of common animals

**Tree growth:**characteristic growth curves for over 130 species of trees—Blog post »

**Genome sizes:**genome sizes of all sequenced organisms, including the number of genes and proteins for each sequenced chromosome

**Metabolic pathways:**over 80 human metabolic pathways, including the citric acid cycle, the urea cycle, citrulline biosynthesis, and many more; topology, biochemical components, and reaction steps

**Oligonucleotide melting:**melting temperatures of oligonucleotides, magnesium and monovalent salt concentrations, and graph of melting temperatures versus salt concentrations

## Materials

**Wood data:**various physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of 700 types of wood—Blog post »

**Alloy data:**physical, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of 10,000 types of alloys—Blog post »

## Physics

**Atomic spectra:**absorption (or emission) spectra of the elements and the corresponding excitation states and graphical representation of the spectra—Blog post »

**Harmonic oscillator:**formulas for computing the amplitudes, phases, and time-evolution of undamped, damped, and forced harmonic oscillators and realizations of the oscillators through springs and pendula

**Coriolis effect:**formulas for computing the trajectory of an object in a rotating frame of reference

**Pendula:**formulas for computing the angles and trajectories of various regular and chaotic pendular, including double pendula, coupled pendula, and spring pendula—Blog post »

**Elastic collisions:**newly added formulas for computing the elastic collisions in one and two dimensions

**Symmetric top:**formula for computing the movement of a heavy symmetric top, time-evolutions for all relevant variables

**Rocket equation:**formulas for computing the height and velocity of a rocket

**Object on inclined plane:**formula for computing forces and accelerations of objects sliding and rolling down an inclined plane, allowing for resting, sliding, rolling, and combinations

**Thermodynamic machines:**formulas for computing efficiencies of various thermodynamic machines, with p-V and T-S diagrams

**Thermodynamic processes:**formulas for computing initial and/or final states for various thermodynamic processes for an ideal gas, with p-V and T-S diagrams for all processes

**Heat capacity ratio:**formula for the calculation of heat capacity ratio of various ideal gases

**Sackur-Tetrode equation:**formula for calculating the entropy of an ideal gas

**de Broglie wavelength:**formula for ideal and thermal de Broglie wavelengths

**Joule's law:**formula for Joule's law for energy dissipation of an electric current

**Larmor formula:**formula for the movement and radiation of a charged particle in a magnetic field

**Refraction in a prism:**formula for the refraction of a light ray in a prism

**Refractive indices of ice, water, and moist air:**formulas calculating the refractive indices of water, ice, and air at different thermodynamic conditions

## Money and Finance

**Tip calculator:**quick and handy calculator to calculate a tip based on a restaurant bill

**Financial analyst recommendations:**buy/hold/sell financial analyst recommendations broken down into time series plots, pie charts, and grids

**Financial portfolios:**portfolio valuation and composition information

**Return on investment calculator:**formula for calculating the return on any investment

**Returns rankings for classes of mutual funds:**comparisons of the top 20 entities with the highest return from an inputted class

## Units and Measures

**Upgrades to wire and steel gauges:**mass, thermal, and electrical properties of given lengths of wire of a certain gauge and material; comparison of the size of wire gauge with other industrial measures in the system; thickness, tolerance, area density, and gamma radiation halving thickness for a given steel gauge

**Rope:**mechanical and thermal properties of different standard rope sizes

**Hypodermic needles:**dimensions and uses of various needle sizes and comparison of sizes with other industrial measures in the system

**Knitting needle sizes:**equivalent needle sizes in multiple systems and dimensions for both nominal size parameter inputs and actual diameters and comparison of sizes with other industrial measures in the system

**Sieve sizes:**related particle and mesh sizes for a given sieve opening input and size comparisons with other industrial measures in the system

**Freight containers:**dimensions and capacity data for a given freight container size

**Nonscientific units:**variety of popular nonscientific units

**Scientific units:**variety of scientific units and constants

**Historic units:**extended support for units no longer in use, including various proposed and never accepted units

**Generalized conversion:**conversions between quantities with incompatible units that allow for "natural" conversion factors, such as converting mass to energy using the famous E=mc2—Blog post »

**Reduction to base units:**conversions of compound quantity and unit expressions to SI base units

**Physical constants:**definitions for various physical constants

**Dimensionless numbers:**support for the large dimensionless numbers of physics

**More arithmetic with quantities:**arithmetic on more quantities that result from stored values

## Math

**Math calculators:**dynamic calculators which allow specification of math problems using interactive input fields—Blog post (November 1, 2010) »—Blog post (March 9, 2011) »

**integration of mathematical definitions, diagrams, classifications, and other information from the**

*MathWorld*definitions:*MathWorld*site into Wolfram|Alpha—Blog post »

**Plane geometry:**support for new plane figures; new geometric computations related to conic sections, angles, lines, planes, and polygons

**Planar laminae:**geometric and mechanical properties of planar laminae—Blog post »

**Solid geometry:**support for new geometric solids and computations in solid geometry—Blog post »

**Area between curves:**compute the area of a planar region bounded by curves

**Plot annotations:**locate stationary points, cusps, corners, and other features of the graphs of functions—Blog post »

**Limit computations:**computation of limits extended to handle the case of expressions involving abstract functions

**Complex analysis:**additional analysis of complex functions, including location of poles and computation of residues—Blog post »

**Root mean square:**compute the root mean square of a periodic function

**Special functions:**support for many additional special functions

**Enhanced plot functionality:**support for log-linear plots; 3D and contour plots for complex-valued functions—Blog post »

**Vectors:**additional vector computations and improved graphical representations

**Number theory enhancements:**compute final digits of large integers; visualize modular arithmetic with clocks; compute common divisors and multiples; identify perfect numbers; compute digit sums in any base

**Pascal's triangle upgrades:**graphical representations of Pascal's triangle modulo an integer, limiting fractal dimensions

**Simplification and alternate forms:**additional types of simplification for math expressions—Blog post »

**Intervals and number lines:**compute properties of intervals of real numbers; plot intervals and other sets of real numbers on number lines—Blog post »

**Scientific notation:**support for conversion of numbers into scientific or engineering notation with specified precision—Blog post »

**Circle packing:**compute properties of dense packings and symmetric packings of circles—Blog post »

**Finite groups:**data on many additional finite groups

**Computational complexity:**data on hundreds of computational complexity classes—Blog post »

**Special matrices:**support for classes of matrices such as Hilbert matrices, Vandermonde matrices, and more

**Graph theory:**many additional graph indices and polynomials

**Probability and combinatorics:**more probability calculations for coins, cards, and dice; probabilities of shared birthdays

**European decimal notation:**support for comma as decimal mark via an interpretation mechanism

**Alternate names:**additional support for alternate and common names of knots, graphs, and other mathematical entities as input and in output

## Technology and Computer Systems

**Flight data:**real-time information about flights and schedules

**Frequency allocations:**ITU/FCC allocations for a frequency given a geographical location, classes of sounds (ultrasound, etc.), and a small, selected list of animals that can hear particular sound ranges

**Notable computers:**query for and compare data on notable personal computers, including RAM amounts, CPU speeds, and other specs

**CIDR calculator:**formula that provides an in-depth parameter breakdown for the inputted IP subnet as well as useful IP address information

**RAID calculator:**formula that calculates detailed information and visual aids for the common RAID configurations

**Passwords:**tools for password generation and analysis

**QR codes:**a quick response barcode generator

## User Experience

**Browser support:**Opera and Safari browser extensions added

**Social media sharing:**simple one-click sharing to popular social media sites

**Pod dog ears:**peel up the dog ear on any pod for extra features

**Widgets:**free, personalized mini-apps that leverage the depth and breadth of the Wolfram|Alpha computational knowledge engine

**Guide lines for plots:**aid in identifying plot coordinates

**Images:**people, species, dinosaurs, elements, minerals, bridges, aircraft, and more

**Interlinking within pods:**cross-linked output

**Navigation links:**handy links to common websites

**Related queries:**topically related links to other queries

**Data statistics:**ability to perform selected operations (maximum, minimum, linear regression) on multiple properties of multiple groups of entities

## Products

**Wolfram|Alpha API**: REST-style web service

**Mobile apps:**Android app

**Wolfram Course Assistant Apps:**the first set of mobile course apps covering topics in math, chemistry, astronomy, and music theory