The Bodleian Library in Oxford is founded with 2,000 books.
Wilhelm Schickard creates a gear-based, wooden, six-digit, mechanical adding machine.
Robert Cawdrey publishes a dictionary with definitions for 2,543 terms.
Kepler's Rudolphine Tables list the positions of 1,406 stars and procedures for locating the planets.
John Napier publishes the first tables of logarithms.
René Descartes introduces coordinate systems to allow geometry to be studied using algebra.
William Petty, traveling with Cromwell's army, systematically surveys the profitability of land in Ireland.
Leibniz promotes the idea of answering all human questions by converting them to a universal symbolic language, then applying logic using a machine. He also tries to organize the systematic collection of knowledge to use in such a system.
A record is started that continues today.
Edmond Halley creates a map showing prevailing winds at different locations.
Graunt and others start to systematically summarize demographic and economic data using statistical ideas based on mathematics.
Newton introduces the idea that mathematical rules can be used to systematically compute the behavior of systems in nature.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society begins publication.
Joseph de la Vega's book Confusion of Confusions describes fluctuations in Dutch stock market prices.
John Wilkins suggests a "philosophical language" in which concepts are encoded by pronouncable phonemes.
Benjamin Franklin publishes the first edition of his popular yearly (1732–1758) almanac.
Linnaeus systematizes the classification of living organisms, introducing ideas like binomial naming.
Playfair's Commercial and Political Atlas graphically illustrates socioeconomic data and invents the pie chart.
The British Museum is founded as a "universal museum" to collect every kind of object, natural and artificial.
The first US Census is taken, as specified by the US Constitution.
Munehisa Homma uses an early candlestick chart for prices in the Japanese rice market.
Robert Bailey Thomas begins publication of the still-extant Farmer's Almanac.
France becomes the first nation to officially adopt the metric system of measurement.
James Watt and John Southern create (but keep secret for 24 years) a device for automatically tracing variation of pressure with volume in a steam engine.
The US (1785) and UK (1791) governments begin creating detailed systematic maps of their countries.